Local officials said three women and four children were killed in the air strikes in the district of Balkh late on January 25.
Several hundred people blocked a key road in the district and gathered in front of the district governor’s office, demanding an investigation.
Khyber Amiri, one of the organizers of the demonstration who spoke to RFE/RL, accused government forces of targeting the homes of “ordinary people and creating terror.”
Afghan forces have been conducting ground attacks and air strikes in Balkh, which shares a border with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan.
The Defense Ministry said it was sending a fact-finding mission to investigate the reports of civilian deaths.
The ministry said it had conducted operations across the country against the Taliban during the last 24 hours, killing 51 militants.